If you think you might have diabetes you should visit your GP as soon as possible.
Urine should not normally contain glucose. If you have glucose in your urine it may be a sign of diabetes. Your urine may also be tested for ketones (chemicals) which indicate type 1 diabetes.
Blood test are used to confirm whether or not you have diabetes. There are a number of different blood tests but a typical test is a fasting blood glucose – a sample of your blood is taken in the morning, before you have had anything to eat and is tested to measure your blood glucose levels. Another test is called an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), sometimes just referred to as a glucose tolerance test (GTT). This involves a blood test, drinking a glucose drink and further samples taken after the drink. The samples are tested to find out how your body is dealing with the glucose.
There is no cure for diabetes. The aim of treatment is to keep your blood glucose levels as normal as possible. As it is the high blood glucose levels that cause the damage it is essential to control your glucose as well as you possibly can.
In most cases of type 1 diabetes insulin injections are needed to compensate for the lack of insulin being produced by the pancreas. You should be in contact with a diabetes care team who will discuss this with you and show you how and when to do it yourself.
Type 1 diabetes can lead to long-term complications as mentioned in the next section (“Type 1 – Complications”). Other treatments may be necessary to reduce the chance of developing complications:
- anti-hypertensive medicines can be used to control blood pressure.
- a statin can be used to reduce high cholesterol levels.
- low-dose aspirin can be used to prevent stroke.
- angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor might be used if you have early signs of diabetic kidney disease.